As Retraction Watch observed in the last week, the dutch scientist Henk Buck delivered new insights about his publication in Science that was retracted in 1990. In the original paper, the authors claimed nothing less than the successful inhibition of HIV infectivity, allowing for a cure of AIDS.
Four separate investigations turned up faked data, manipulated images, and highly selective reporting designed to obscure the fact that HIV-fighting molecules never existed.
Having this in mind, I think that this new publication 25 years later might leave many people speechless. When I read the recent publication, the originally retracted paper and the retraction, I wanted to give this new interpretation a fair chance. At least, it is a discussion of the data, so what could be wrong with that? Apparently, quite a lot: First, of course the fact that Buck was proven guilty of scientific fraud. In addition to that comes the journal owned by Scientific Research Publishing (SCIRP), registered in Delaware and located in China and its questionable reputation.
Now, the two big questions are: Why? And why now?
I am keeping my fingers crossed that Retraction Watch receives an answer from the author, as this might be the beginning (or a very late continuation) of an interesting story.
The current retraction wave in Nature is still highly discussed in the scientific community. Indeed, as of September 2014, the number of retractions is 8, which is yet even higher than in 2013, where it have been „only“ six retractions. In this discussion, the record from 2003 is often referred to, which is supposed to be 10.
So, what is going on in Nature? Paul Knoepfler addresses this question intensively in his blog, also pointing out that the increased number of retraction might be the result of a lower tolerance by the staff of Nature. Although the numbers of retractions over the last years look impressive (1–2–6–8, ranging from 2011 to 2014), this high number of retractions looks different in comparison to the record in 2003. Nevertheless, I have to contradict @Richvn, as two of the ten listed papers are related to retractions, but are not actual retractions.
The contribution from my side to the ongoing discussion about Nature‘s wave of retractions is therefore, that this at least is not unique in the history of Nature. Nevertheless, 2014 has not passed yet. And several publications are, of course, retracted at a later point of time.
As announced in the Nature Blog this week, the RIKEN Centre for Developmental Biology (CDB) in Kobe, Japan is going to be renamed and reduced in size. This is so far the latest development in maybe the science scandal in 2014, where two publications in Nature about “stress-induced” growing of stems cells [1, 2] were retracted. The reason was the lack of reproducibility. Very tragically, this situation was accompanied by a suicide.
The amount of retracted papers is impressively shown by RetractionWatch, and this is not limited to highly prestigious publications, like Nature. The reasons for the publication of those inreproducible papers are manifold. In my opinion, the most likely case might be simple mistakes, as in the publication of Doo Ok Jang et al. in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, which was retracted five years after its publication.
These “false positive” results are in my opinion the most dangerous perils in science, since every scientists is eager to publish everything positive, (almost) no matter what. Once a hypothesis was proven in an exeriment, the chance is rather low that this will be double- or triple-checked.